The Predictive Power of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Genetic Risk Factors


  • Ashley Varatip
  • Serena Huang
  • Yash Kilam
  • Cameron Asadi



attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, Stimulants, Non-stimulants, Neurotransmission, Neurexins 1, NRXN1, Dopamine receptor D3, DRD3, Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase 65, GAD65, Patched Domain Containing 1 gene, Ptchd1, Norepinephrine Transporter, SLC6A2


Issues regarding disorganization and hyperactivity are large burdens on the pediatric population, and the severity of these behavioural disorders, called attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) falls on the slow-developing treatments that are unable to fully solve the symptoms of those affected. Limiting factors include the heterogeneous responses that many patients have in response to pharmacological treatments, the range of comorbid symptoms and conditions associated with ADHD, and the intricacies of environmental-genetic interactions involved. Since ADHD has a strong genetic component, with up to 80% heritability for the condition, epigenetic and genetic studies offer valuable insight into how future treatments could tackle the issue. In particular, the study reveals how genes might provide indicators for patients’ response to medication, their symptomatology and unique risks for comorbidities. This paper outlines the current pharmacological and cognitive treatments for ADHD, discusses their limitations and offers an overview of present genetic risk factors to analyze how they may provide insights for detection, prevention and responses to treatment.


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How to Cite

Varatip, A., Huang, S., Kilam, Y., & Asadi, C. (2023). The Predictive Power of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Genetic Risk Factors. Berkeley Pharma Tech Journal of Medicine, 3(1), 59–70.



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